See also this article: THE DNA GENEALOGY SCAM
(Sample Tainting Effect Illustration below)
(1)The following page states “mtDNA Proven Origins” with links to living descendants that have been genetically tested. http://www.acadian-home.org/frames.html Genealogist Steven White acknowledged as providing support for “proven” origin.
(2)“tainted” refers to the inadequacy of modern genealogical DNA testing. For a better understanding of DNA testing rules and problems with DNA in genealogical research go to website: “DNA Accuracy in Genealogy is a Fallacy” http://newfrancemetis.blogspot.ca/
(3)“hybrid” is the combination of two unique and distinct haplogroups.
(4)“Aa” indicates a Native North American male (haplogroup A)who also carries his mothers Native haplogroup A. “H and U” similarly, are European haplogroups combined to indicate a male who carries his mothers haplogroup. The mother’s DNA cannot pass to her son’s offsprings. Read about haplogroups: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup
(5)Haplogroup refers to a grouping of people in a population who carry the same human DNA mutation markers and their world migration patterns over time. See also: http://www.familytreedna.com/understanding-haplogroups.aspx
(6)For basic DNA inheritance rules see link on footnote #2
(7)In a recent inquiry to Family Tree DNA, the manager of the Acadian DNA Project (assumed) refused to admit that Viking DNA had any appreciable influence on the aboriginal gene pool:
“.......It is unlikely that there was much interbreeding between early Scandanavian populations visiting North America and Native Americans...” Watson, FTDNA (unqualified)
It is not known if Family Tree DNA geneticists back this stance. Other proponents include genealogists, historians and individuals attempting to clarify ancestral European origins using DNA as “proof” of ancestry. See link on footnote #1. Also suggesting otherwise see : “American Indian Sailed to Europe With Vikings?”National Geographic Daily News http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2010/11/101123-native-american-indian-vikings-iceland-genetic-dna-science-europe/ (Is this the tip of the iceberg?)
The Innu Discovery of Europe?
"Exploration can be a two way street. A party of Beothuk from Newfoundland may have been the first native North Americans to reach Europe. There is an 1153 AD medieval legend from Lubeck, Germany telling the story of the arrival in Europe of a canoe with Indians from the coast of "Baccalaos - the Basque word for codfish - which was on the same latitude as Germany. Other accounts suggest these aboriginals were rescued from a canoe drifting in the Atlantic Ocean."
“Native American DNA found in English women”
Some hybridization certainly occurred in the indigenous population over the Viking age within the indigenous population of north eastern North America.
(8)See link: http://www.mnh.si.edu/vikings/intro.html There is a considerable amount of information on the internet. Google various descriptions including the word “Viking”.
(9)See footnotes #7 and #8
(10)“Basque people......Made regular visits to North America long before Columbus to fish and to trade for beaver skins. (Recently unearthed British customs records show large Basque imports of beaver pelts from 1380-1433)...” Possibly as early as 1200. http://vaticproject.blogspot.ca/2011/12/so-what-about-basque-people-rh-neg.html
“...Recently unearthed British customs records show large Basque imports of beaver pelts from 1380-1433. The invention of a sophisticated navigational device called an "abacus." (No relation to the common abacus.)...” http://www.reptilianagenda.com/research/r110199a.shtml
....Early 16th century....
(11)“....Jaques Cartier 1535 sailed the same route, he came across more than a 1000 Basque fishing vessels; presumably busy doing what they had always been about: fishing cod at the banks.....” http://medievalhistories.com/newport-ship/
(12)See footnote #7
(13)French in Acadia and New France
(14)See footnote #7
(15)“...Haplotype is a group of genes, which is inherited together by an organism from a single parent....” http://www.nature.com/scitable/definition/haplotype-haplotypes-142
(16)Metis organizations and some new First Nation bands in Canada, may now---but more so in future, allow DNA as a qualifying factor for membership, though the legal definition of Metis no longer requires blood quantum, at least, for Metis membership. http://www.metisnation.org/registry ,
Some Native Reserves in the US seem to be cleaning house using DNA as an aid to justify their membership exclusions. “......This testing helps to determine whether or not individuals are in fact from a real Native American heritage or not.........modern tribes of today generally require that people have a minimum of one grandparent or great-grandparent who was Native American....” though, “.....Many tribes feel that tribal law is in fact what determines the status of an individual tribe, not DNA test results.....” http://dna.accessgenealogy.com/dna_native_american.htm
(17)Use of the word “proven” http://www.acadian-home.org/frames.html Link: “mtDNA Proven Origins”
(18) Our complete gene composition. Link: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genome